Penjing, as its name suggests, is "landscape in a pot".
It integrates "poetry, calligraphy, painting and artistry",
and builds "mountains, water, trees and landscape" in one pot.
Penjing is created from nature and beyond nature.
Originating in East China’s Jiangsu Province,
Yangzhou penjing takes natural plants as the main material,
and condenses the beauty of gardens south of the Yangtze River into a small space with artificial skills.
Yangzhou penjing originated in the Ming Dynasty (1368 -1644 A.D.) and flourished in the Qing Dynasty (1636 – 1912 A.D.).
In its heyday, "every local family had a garden, and every household kept their penjing".
The most famous technique is called "three bends in one inch ":
there can be three bends within one inch of the branch at the densest part. The trees in penjing are in different shapes.
Some are quirky, some have vivid charm.
The branches have twists and turns, either like a circling dragon,
or like an ancient painting.
Penjing is called "silent poetry" by Chinese literati.
Penjing is the art of time, it requires long-term care and careful management.
Beautiful penjing works often take years or decades to create and maintain. As one of the traditional Chinese arts, penjing embodies the creator's artistic interest and life perception,
and the unique charm of classical Chinese gardens.